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Spetzler–Martin Grading Scale for Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain Print E-mail

Arteriovenous malformations of the brain are congenital anomalies of the blood vessels that are derived from maldevelopment of the capillary network, allowing direct connections between cerebral arteries and veins. The most common presenting symptoms are cerebral hemorrhage and seizures. Focal neurologic deficits and headaches may develop independent of cerebral bleeding. As a result of the widespread use of brain imaging, arteriovenous malformations are increasingly being discovered incidentally.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 14 November 2017 11:53
Kurtzke's Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) Print E-mail

The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), an accepted method of quantifying disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) consists of an eight-function system scale monitoring motor, sensory, cerebellar, brain stem, visual, bowel and bladder, pyramidal and other functions.

Last Updated on Monday, 13 November 2017 11:59
Diagnostic Criteria for Anaphylaxis Print E-mail

Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death; it involves multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and skin.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 25 October 2017 12:03
Berlin Definition of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Print E-mail

The Berlin definition, proposed in 2012, breaks with tradition by establishing three risk strata that are based on the degree of hypoxemia as assessed at a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).

Last Updated on Tuesday, 10 October 2017 14:00
Comparative Effectiveness of Statin Therapy Print E-mail

HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors or statins are clearly the most effective class of drugs for lowering LDL cholesterol. Those drugs have been associated with a beneficial impact on cardiovascular morbiditi and mortality. 

Last Updated on Friday, 03 November 2017 12:03
Diagnosis of Porphyria Print E-mail

The porphyrias are disorders of heme synthesis, which has eight steps. Each type of porphyria involves a defect, either inherited or acquired, in a pathway enzyme. When the defect is physiologically significant, it results in overproduction of pathway precursors preceding the defective step which enter the circulation and are excreted into urine or bile. The diseases have been grouped as acute hepatic porphyrias and photocutaneous porphyrias. The acute porphyrias are due to hepatic overproduction of the porphyrin precursors, delta aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen, and the symptoms are caused by injury primarily to the nervous system. Cutaneous porphyria is due to overproduction of photosensitizing porphyrins by the liver or bone marrow, depending on the type of porphyria.

Last Updated on Monday, 23 October 2017 12:10
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